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加工調制豬飼料應注意的問題

來源:http://www.abundant-life-coaching.com/ 日期:2020-10-29 發布人:sanwa8

在加工調制豬飼料時要注意以下的問題:

The following problems should be paid attention to when processing and preparing pig feed:
(一)科學配合豬飼料,須注意處理好如下關系:
(1) In order to scientifically prepare pig feed, we should pay attention to the following relations:
1.多樣、合理,保證營養全面。在喂豬的青、粗、精三類飼料中,青料含水分多,體積大,易消化,適口性好,并含有多種維生素、礦物質和質量好的蛋白質;粗料體積大,粗纖維含量較高,配合合理,可增加飼料與消化液的接觸面,并有通便作用,會使豬有飽脹感,但難以消化;精料的特點是體積小,營養價值較高,易消化,但礦物質、維生素較缺乏。
1. Diverse and reasonable to ensure comprehensive nutrition. Among the green, coarse and refined feeds for pigs, the green fodder contains more moisture, has large volume, is easy to digest, has good palatability, and contains a variety of vitamins, minerals and high-quality protein; the coarse feed has a large volume, high crude fiber content, reasonable combination, can increase the contact surface between feed and digestive fluid, and has a cathartic effect, which makes pigs feel full but difficult to digest. The characteristics of concentrate are as follows Small size, high nutritional value, easy to digest, but lack of minerals and vitamins.
2.注意日糧體積與豬采食量的關系。衡量飼料體積大小可用飼料風干物含量計算。按豬每100千克體重每日需飼料風干物2.5~4.5千克計算,青、粗、精三種飼料的比例大體按風干物5∶3∶2安排,1頭150千克體重的懷孕母豬,每天需飼料風干物以5千克計算,則2.5千克風干物來自青料(青料6千克得風干物1千克,則需青料15千克);1.5千克風干物來自粗料;1千克來自精料。
2. Pay attention to the relationship between ration volume and pig feed intake. The volume of feed can be measured by the content of air dried feed. According to the daily requirement of 2.5-4.5kg/100kg body weight of pigs, the proportion of green, coarse and refined feed is roughly arranged according to 5:3:2 of air dried matter. If a pregnant sow with a weight of 150 kg needs 5 kg of air-dried feed per day, 2.5kg of air-dried matter comes from green feed (15kg of air-dried material is obtained from 6kg of green fodder), and 1.5kg of air-dried matter is from coarse feed ; 1 kg from concentrate.
3.配合飼料適口性好,容易消化。配合飼料中,如含能量和蛋白質較高,含粗纖維少,則適口性好,容易消化;相反,含能量和蛋白質少,含粗纖維多,則適口性差,難以消化。在配合豬飼料時,宜多采用青飼料,少用粗飼料,并且配合的粗飼料品質要好。
3. The compound feed is palatable and easy to digest. In the formulated feed, if it contains more energy and protein and less crude fiber, it is palatable and easy to digest; on the contrary, if it contains less energy and protein and more crude fiber, it has poor palatability and is difficult to digest. In the preparation of pig feed, we should use more green feed and less roughage, and the quality of the formulated roughage is better.
4.根據不同豬群,選用不同類型的日糧。一般來說,仔豬、種公豬、催肥階段的育肥豬,可選用精料型,即精料可占日糧總重的50%以上;繁殖母豬、后備母豬可選用青料型,即青飼料可占日糧總重的50%以上;架子豬可選用糠麩型,即糠麩類飼料可占日糧總重的50%以上。
4. Select different types of diets according to different pig groups. Generally speaking, the concentrate type can be selected for piglets, breeding boars and fattening pigs at fattening stage, that is, concentrate can account for more than 50% of the total diet weight; green feed type can be selected for breeding sows and reserve sows, that is, green feed can account for more than 50% of the total diet weight; bran type diet can be selected for frame pigs, that is, bran type feed can account for more than 50% of the total diet weight.
豬預混料
Pig premix
(二)日常應用時要注意如下幾個問題:
(2) Attention should be paid to the following problems in daily application:
1.飼料要盡量進行精細加工,嚴防發霉、變質;魚粉要盡量少用,以降低飼養成本;菜籽餅、棉籽餅要做好去毒處理,飼喂懷孕母豬時要嚴格控制用量,一般不超過飼料總量的5%;應用青綠多汁飼料飼喂公豬時不可過多,否則容易形成“草腹”,影響配種能力,飼喂空懷母豬時,大量應用青綠多汁飼料可以促進發情。
In addition, it is necessary to control the amount of feed with more than 1% cottonseed meal to prevent the pig from spoilage When the sows are empty, a large amount of green and juicy feed can promote oestrus.
2.用于土種豬、二元雜交豬時,可以適當減少玉米、豆餅(粕)比例,用次粉、米糠等代替一部分玉米,用菜籽餅(粕)、棉籽餅(粕)等代替一部分豆粕。
2. When it is used for native pig and binary hybrid pig, the proportion of corn and soybean cake (meal) can be appropriately reduced, some corn can be replaced by inferior flour and rice bran, and some soybean meal can be replaced by rapeseed meal (meal), cottonseed meal (meal).
3.應注意根據季節的不同來調整飼料比例。冬季應增加玉米等能量飼料的比例,適當降低豆餅(粕)等蛋白飼料比例,但粗蛋白下降不要超過15個百分點;夏季由于采食量下降,應減少玉米等能量飼料比例,并適當提高鈣的含量。
3. Pay attention to adjust feed proportion according to different seasons. In winter, the proportion of energy feed such as corn should be increased, and the proportion of protein feed such as soybean meal (meal) should be appropriately reduced, but the decrease of crude protein should not exceed 15 percentage points; in summer, due to the decrease of feed intake, the proportion of energy feed such as corn should be reduced and the content of calcium should be appropriately increased.
4.葉菜類飼料不宜悶煮,否則易引起亞硝酸鹽中毒;嫩玉米苗、高粱苗不宜喂豬,否則,易引起氫氰酸中毒;馬鈴薯芽及其新鮮莖葉不宜喂豬,否則,易引起龍葵素中毒;另外,要控制食鹽、酒糟的喂量,防止引起食鹽中毒、酒糟中毒。
4. Leafy vegetable feed should not be boiled, otherwise it is easy to cause nitrite poisoning; tender corn seedlings and sorghum seedlings should not be fed to pigs, otherwise, it is easy to cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning; potato sprouts and their fresh stems and leaves should not be fed to pigs, otherwise, it is easy to cause solanine poisoning; in addition, the feeding amount of salt and distiller's grains should be controlled to prevent salt poisoning and distiller's grains poisoning.

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